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Overview of Cuprous Oxide

wallpapers News 2021-06-11
Overview of Cuprous Oxide
Cuprous Oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Cu2O. It is one of the principal oxides of copper, the other being or copper(II) oxide or cupric oxide (CuO). This red-colored solid is a component of some antifouling paints. The compound can appear either yellow or red, depending on the size of the particles. Copper(I) oxide is found as the reddish mineral cuprite.
 
Preparation
Copper(I) oxide may be produced by several methods.[4] Most straightforwardly, it arises via the oxidation of copper metal:
4 Cu + O2 → 2 Cu2O
Additives such as water and acids affect the rate of this process as well as the further oxidation to copper(II) oxides. It is also produced commercially by reduction of copper(II) solutions with sulfur dioxide. Aqueous cuprous chloride solutions react with the base to give the same material. In all cases, the color is highly sensitive to procedural details.
The formation of copper(I) oxide is the basis of Fehling's test and Benedict's test for reducing sugars. These sugars reduce an alkaline solution of a copper(II) salt, giving a bright red precipitate of Cu2O.
It forms on silver-plated copper parts exposed to moisture when the silver layer is porous or damaged. This kind of corrosion is known as the red plague.
Little evidence exists for copper(I) hydroxide CuOH, which is expected to rapidly undergo dehydration. A similar situation applies to the hydroxides of gold(I) and silver(I).
 
Properties
The solid is diamagnetic. In terms of their coordination spheres, copper centers are 2-coordinated and the oxides are tetrahedral. The structure thus resembles in some sense the main polymorphs of SiO2, and both structures feature interpenetrated lattices.
Copper(I) oxide dissolves in concentrated ammonia solution to form the colorless complex [Cu(NH3)2]+, which is easily oxidized in air to the blue [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+. It dissolves in hydrochloric acid to give solutions of CuCl−2. Dilute sulfuric acid and nitric acid produce copper(II) sulfate and copper(II) nitrate, respectively.Cu2O degrades to copper(II) oxide in moist air.
 
Applications
Cuprous oxide is commonly used as a pigment, a fungicide, and an antifouling agent for marine paints. Rectifier diodes based on this material have been used industrially as early as 1924, long before silicon became the standard. Copper(I) oxide is also responsible for the pink color in a positive Benedict's test.
 
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